They show that by acting multilaterally, i.e. Placed between these views, Bode et al. DOI:, Li W, Islam A, Johnson K, Lauchande P, Shang X, Xu S. Understanding inter-organizational trust among integrated care service provider networks: A perspective on organizational asymmetries. Hon. Integrated care systems (ICS) are fragile and still developing. The author has no competing interests to declare. DOI:, Tranfield D, Denyer D, Smart P. Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. Organizational capacity for service integration in community-based addiction health services. Considering these calls, this literature review builds on Huxham and Vangen [27, 28], who define network leadership as being concerned with the “mechanisms that ‘make things happen’” [27, p. 415]. DOI:, Gronn P. Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis. DOI:, Adjerid I, Adler-Milstein J, Angst, C. Reducing medicare spending through electronic health information exchange: The role of incentives and exchange maturity. Health and Social Care in the Community, 2009; 17(5): 485–494. This paucity of research leaves ample room for progress. Leadership, 2010; 6(1): 67–88. Social Science & Medicine, 1998; 46(9): 1137–1149. in the areas of distributed and complexity leadership theory. Medical Care Research and Review, 2015; 72(6): 665–686. (2013). The most important theories are network theory (15), integrated care theory (11), social network theory (7), organisation theory (6) and leadership theory (4), whereby some papers combine two or more lenses. International Journal of Integrated Care, 2013; 13(3): 1–10. Leadership Quarterly, 2009; 20(4): 631–650. Regional planning implementation and its impact on integration of a mental health care network. In: Clegg SR, Hardy C, Lawrence TB, Nord WR (eds. Workforce shortages are making this even harder. Future research could build on these insights, using recent advances in leadership theory to model how integrated care networks function and evolve. DOI:, Meijboom B, de Haan J, Verheyen, P. Networks for integrated care provision: An economic approach based on opportunism and trust. A representative of practice-oriented research at the policy level is Tsasis et al., who analyse the formation and development of fourteen government-mandated integrated care networks in Canada [58]. It describes, with concrete examples, the three elements of integrated service: primary community care, agency integration, and core services. Milbank Quarterly, 1999; 77(1): 77–110. 20, no. Organization Studies, 2008; 29(3): 393–413. Anne Wojtak, DrPH, MHSc, Adjunct Faculty, University of Toronto, Canada. This section sheds light on outcomes, analysing what leadership actually makes happen. J Interprof Care, 2003; 17(1): 69–83. ), Handbook integrated care, 2017; 3–23. American Journal of Public Health, 2014; 104(4): e40–e47. The Oxfordshire Integrated Diabetes Care Programme team reflects here on the kind of leadership that is required, and the challenges they have faced. At the organisation level, integrated care networks rely on the presence of motivated top managers with a vision of how their respective organisations gain from integrating care [8, 44, 103, 104]. Moreover, they have shed light on multiple tensions challenging leadership in integrated care networks, often drawing on integrated care, organisation and social network theory. DOI:, Tsasis P, Evans JM, Owen S. Reframing the challenges to integrated care: A complex-adaptive systems perspective. International Journal of Management Reviews, 2018; 20(2): 457–482. DOI:, Chreim S, Williams BE, Janz L, Dastmalchian A. DOI:, Mintzberg H. Managing the myths of health care: Bridging the separations between care, cure, control, and community. The majority of work focuses on outcomes at the network level. Nurse case managers and social workers in our integrated care management department are an integral part of the care team. They find that leadership practices involve multiple distributed actors pooling resources and expertise [13, 86, 87]. Policy Studies Journal, 2009; 37(2): 325–351. Uncover why Integrated Care Management … For example, the topic can be studied from network theory, integrated care theory or other theoretical angles, each perspective using its own definitions and illuminating different aspects of the phenomenon. Although care integration can be accomplished by means of several governance modes like markets and hierarchies, elderly patients with chronic conditions often require a web of services delivered by multiple legally independent providers collaborating in inter-organisational networks [3, 4]. At the network level, many studies emphasise the role of network governance [ 105 ], i.e. Brass DJ, Galaskiewicz J, Greve HR, Tsai WP. NWT Integrated Service Delivery Model 2 of 29 What information is in this summary? London: Palgrave Macmillan; 2016. In this context, integrated care is seen as a promising approach for enhancing the efficiency of service delivery and for improving patients’ and populations’ care experiences and health outcomes [2]. Strategic Management Journal, 1992; 13: 163–182. Health Education & Behavior, 2013; 40: 13–23. It is timely as scholars and policy makers regard integrated care as a key part in reforming healthcare systems to cope with demographic aging, the rising prevalence of chronic diseases and the growing demand for long-term care [1, 1]. structures and processes of authority and control to coordinate network activities [11, 45, 49, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69]. DOI:, Fuller J, Oster C, Cochrane EM, Dawson S, Lawn S, Henderson J, et al. DOI:, Greenhalgh T, Jackson C, Shaw S, Janamian T. Achieving research impact through co-creation in community-based health services: Literature review and case study. Academy of Management Journal, 2000; 43(6): 1159–1175. Further positions will be announced in due course. The five year forward view (FYFV) gave system leaders a broad direction of travel but did not deliver the detail required for implementation. Legislation has a particular impact by providing funding and creating financial incentives [11, 14, 41, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53]. Besides governance structures and processes, studies examine the role of trust among network members [10, 12, 41, 48, 70, 71, 72, 73]. Further empirical investigations are needed to explore how actors cope with this challenge, assuming that persistent tensions are both media and consequences of leading in integrated care networks. In view of their worldwide importance, it is surprising how little we know about how integrated care networks are led. Sport Management Review, 2019; 22(1): 142–152. Den Hertog, F., Groen, M., & Weehuizen, R. (2005). DOI:, Mitterlechner M, ‘Leadership in Integrated Care Networks: A Literature Review and Opportunities for Future Research’ (2020) 20 International Journal of Integrated Care 6 DOI:, Mitterlechner, Matthias. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 2007; 40(4): 429–437. Bohmer, R. M. J. Second, the review perhaps unsurprisingly shows that the field tends to focus on the network level of analysis (50 studies). Strategic Management Journal, 2008; 29(13): 1465–1474. Leadership activities refer to what actors, i.e. On studying managerial elites. Table 1 shows the resulting analytical framework and findings. These practices are situated in histories of existing cultures of clinician engagement and established partnerships. They tend to argue for shared governance in which activities are coordinated by all network members [45]. In networks, leadership involves the coordination of several legally autonomous organisations [17]. The list of countries advancing network-based care integration is long. Journal of Health Politics Policy and Law, 1998; 23(5): 771–794. Harvard Business School Case 9-399-150. Several studies recommend coordinating different funding streams and creating collaborative financial contracts among providers and insurers, which support patient coordination and information exchange across organisations [14, 41, 48, 49]. Others, by contrast, find that market-based competition undermines collaboration, observing how it complicates the formation of disease management [41], quality improvement [43] and comprehensive primary care networks [6]. At the policy level, the importance of public governance structures, i.e. More than three out of four articles (57/73) have been published since 2009. Finally, writers note that integrated care networks are affected by the broader social environment in which they are embedded [56, 57]. It systematises the debate and outlines avenues for future research in this important and previously neglected sub-field of integrated care theory. Rosenheck R, Morrissey J, Lam J, Calloway M, Stolar M, Johnsen M, et al. Effectiveness of a systematic approach to promote intersectoral collaboration in comprehensive school health promotion: A multiple-case study using quantitative and qualitative data. The Integrated Care Management Program (iCMP) began at Massachusetts General Hospital in 2006 to support our primary care patients with complex health issues. Cross-sector collaboration in the high-poverty setting: Qualitative results from a community-based diabetes intervention. Third, the notion of leadership has long attracted significant interest among management researchers and social scientists more broadly. Working towards integrated community care for older people: Empowering organisational features from a professional perspective. While a broad range of synonyms was used to include as many studies as possible, the search was narrowed with the term “inter-organisational” (and related synonyms) to exclude inter-personal, intra-organisational and other forms of networks. Analysts also study the impact of network structures [63, 74, 75, 76], arguing that networks rely on network efficiency and density [63, 75, 76]. 2011). Studies find that they need to strike a balance between facilitating cooperation among service providers and using the “shadow of hierarchy” [62]. Compare pay for popular roles and read about the team’s work-life balance. Moreover, complexity leadership theory builds on concepts from complexity science. System leadership in the current health and care landscape does present challenges. 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