la résistance meaning
; Start the Pièce de résistance article, using the Article Wizard if you wish, or add a request for it; but please remember Wikipedia is not a dictionary. Phrase with special meaning functioning as verb--for example, "put their heads together," "come to an end."  As the Communists were used to operating in secret, were tightly disciplined, and had a number of veterans of the Spanish Civil War, they played a disproportionate role in the Resistance. He was assassinated on order of the Iranian Islamic Republic in 1991. , Ousby stated that the "breathless prose" in which this maqusiard remembered his first night out in the forest was typical of the maqusiards whose main traits were their innocence and naivety; many seemed not to understand just precisely who they were taking on or what they were getting themselves into by fleeing to the countryside.  The founder of Ceux de la Libération ("Those of the Liberation"), Maurice Ripoche, initially defended Vichy but soon placed the liberation of France above all other goals and in 1941 opened his movement to leftists. Dutch-Paris built an important network in France to help resistants, Jews and allied pilots to cross the Pyrenees and flee to Britain.  In the southern zone, François de Menthon's newspaper Liberté merged with Henri Frenay's Vérité to form Combat in December 1941, which grew to a circulation of 200,000 by 1944. ... Are they going to stop? Define piece de resistance.  It was also politically and morally important to France, both during the German occupation and for decades afterward, because it provided the country with an inspiring example of the patriotic fulfillment of a national imperative, countering an existential threat to French nationhood. Its importance increased throughout the second half of 1943 and into the spring of 1944. Italians were particularly numerous in the Hitler-annexed Moselle industrial area, where they played a determining role in the creation of the Département's main resistance organisation, Groupe Mario. Starting in late January 1944, a group of maquisards led by Théodose Morel (codename Tom) began to assemble on the Glières Plateau near Annecy in the Haute-Savoie. There was nothing else.  For instance, in Saint-Amand-Montrond, the maquis seized the town and took 13 miliciens and their associated women prisoners, including the wife of Francis Bout de l'An, a senior leader of the Milice who intervened to take personal charge of the situation to get his wife back. , As Laval predicated, the hardline policies that Sauckel advocated turned the basically apolitical maquis political, driving them straight into the resistance as the maquisards turned to the established resistance groups to ask for arms and training. They were particularly active in Brittany, but on every portion of the front we secured help from them in a multitude of ways. Onerous regulations, strict censorship, incessant propaganda and nightly curfews all played a role in establishing an atmosphere of fear and repression. , After the landings in Normandy and Provence, the paramilitary components of the Resistance were organised more formally, into a hierarchy of operational units known, collectively, as the French Forces of the Interior (FFI). They understood that their post-war reputations would depend, in large part, on their conduct during the war years.  Starting in 1941, it was common for crowds to sing La Marseillaise on traditional holidays like May Day, Bastille Day, 6 September (the anniversary of the Battle of the Marne in 1914) and Armistice Day with a special emphasis on the line: "Aux armes, citoyens!" Mouvements Unis de la Résistance (Unified Movements of the Resistance, MUR) was a French Resistance organisation resulting from the regrouping of three major Resistance movements ("Combat", "Franc-Tireur" and "Libération-Sud") in January 1943. Diederich, known only as "Capitaine Baptiste", had 77 maquis soldiers under his command and is best known for attacking Riom prison, where he and his fighters freed every one of 114 inmates who had been sentenced to death.  With the National Council of the Resistance, resistance activities started to become more coordinated. The majority of the Polish soldiers, and some Polish civilians, who stayed in France after the German victory in 1940, as well as one Polish pilot shot down over France (one of many Polish pilots flying for the RAF), joined the French Resistance, notably including Tony Halik and Aleksander Kawałkowski. Ici, par exemple, on lit : R = 0,009 MΩ. , On 1 December 1942, a new resistance group, the ORA, Organisation de résistance de l'armée (Army Resistance Organization), was founded. The plans for the Resistance in Operation Overlord were: General de Gaulle himself was only informed by Churchill on 4 June 1944 that the Allies planned to land in France on 6 June.  Summarizing up the Battle of Saint Marcel, Hue wrote: The majority of the younger men had never been in battle, and seeing their friends' brains and guts oozing on to the grass and mud made them sick in the head and stomach.  Indeed, she herself was arrested in February 1942, tortured, and deported to Hamburg where she was beheaded by guillotine in February 1943. The Maquis and the Milice were enemies thrown up by the final chaos of the Occupation, in a sense twins symbiotically linked in a final hunt.". Resistance to something such as a change or a new idea is a refusal to accept it. , As part of the preparations for Operation Overlord, Resistance attacks on the rail system increased with the Resistance in the first three months of 1944 damaging 808 locomotives compared to 387 damaged by air attack. During the Italian campaign of 1943, 130,000 Free French soldiers fought on the Allied side and, by the time of the Normandy invasion, Free French forces numbered approximately half a million regulars and more than 100,000 French Forces of the Interior (FFI). The robbers surrendered to the police without offering resistance. Bégué suggested that the BBC's Radio Londres send personal messages to the Resistance. They are part of mankind. Many gradually moved away from their antisemitic prejudices and their hatred of "démocrassouille", 'dirty democracy' (which many equated with mob rule), or simply away from their traditional grass-roots conservatism.  Approximately 9,000 were executed, mostly without trial as summary executions, notably including members and leaders of the pro-Nazi milices. Resistance, or a resistance level, is the price at which the price of an asset meets pressure on its way up by the emergence of a growing number of sellers who wish to sell at that price. Resistance definition, the act or power of resisting, opposing, or withstanding.  On 1 May 1942, May Day, which Vichy France had tried to turn into a Catholic holiday celebrating St. Philip, Premier Pierre Laval was forced to break off his speech when the crowd began to chant "Mort à Laval" (death to Laval). The 1942 novel Le Silence de la Mer ("The Silence of the Sea"), by Jean Bruller, quickly became a symbol of mental resistance through its story of how an old man and his niece refused to speak to the German officer occupying their house. The two forms of resistance, active and passive, and the north–south occupational divide, allow for many different interpretations, but what can broadly be agreed on is a synopsis of the events which took place. ‘The pièce de résistance was the appearance of a massive bald eagle, born in Scotland.’ ‘But the pièce de résistance was an under-5-inch-tall lone speaker that could be placed anywhere, indoors or out.’ ‘The pièce de résistance was the enlarged orchestra's traversal of Mahler's Symphony No 1 in D (Titan).’ A number of them formed the Union of Russian Patriots, which adopted pro-Soviet positions and collaborated closely with the French Communist Party. 1 ways to abbreviate Mémoire Et Espoirs De La Résistance.  On 21 June 1943, Moulin called a secret meeting in Caluire-et-Cuire suburb of Lyon to discuss the crisis and try to find the traitor who betrayed Delestraint. On 23 June 1944, Koenig began to operate, giving orders to all the SOE and OSS agents via the Special Forces Headquarters. " In 1942, the Royal Air Force (RAF) attempted to bomb the Schneider-Creusot works at Lyon, which was one of France's largest arms factories.  Numerous resistance groups were destroyed by such double agents, and the SOE often charged that the poor security arrangements of the French resistance groups left them open to being destroyed by one double agent.  A number of the Polish code-breakers who developed the Bombe machine in the 1930s continued to work for the Deuxième Bureau as part of the Cadix team breaking German codes. , Reflecting the growth of the Resistance, on 30 January 1943, the Milice was created to hunt down the résistants, through initially that was only one of the Milice's tasks; it was first presented as an organisation to crack down on the black market.  Archbishop Jules-Géraud Saliège of Toulouse, in a pastoral letter of 23 August 1942, declared: "You cannot do whatever you wish against these men, against these women, against these fathers and mothers. The ANACR acronym/abbreviation definition.  The SOE provided training for the Resistance; however, as the SOE agent Roger Miller noted after visiting a resistance workshop making bombs in late 1943: If the instructors from the training schools in England could have seen those Frenchmen making up charges the cellar would looked to them like Dante's Inferno. , On 21 August 1941, a French Communist, Pierre Georges, assassinated the German naval officer Anton Moser in the Paris Metro, the first time the resistance had killed a German. The FFI in Normandy and the Île-de-France region surrounding Paris began to harass German forces intensively, cutting roads and railways, setting ambushes and fighting conventional battles alongside their allies. " Pastor Marc Boegner, president of the National Protestant Federation, denounced the rafles in a sermon in September 1942, asking Calvinists to hide Jews. In one case, as many as 77 milices members were summarily executed at once.  In the middle of 1944, Chaban-Delmas had reported to de Gaulle that the FFI numbered 15,000 in Paris, but the time of the liberation of Paris on 25 August 1944, between 50,000 and 60,000 people were wearing FFI armbands. pièce de résistance n (plural pièces de résistance) masterwork, masterpiece; The best achievement of an author or artist, representing his major life effort. , The French intelligence service, the Deuxième Bureau stayed loyal to the Allied cause despite nominally being under the authority of Vichy; the Deuxième Bureau continued to collect intelligence on Germany, maintained links with British and Polish intelligence and kept the secret that before World War II Polish intelligence had devised a method via a mechanical computer known as the Bombe to break the Enigma machine that was used to code German radio messages. , As the occupation went on, service with the STO was widened, with farmers and university students losing their exempt status until 1944, when all fit men aged 18–60 and women aged 18–45 were being called up for service with the STO. Si la résistance est utilisée dans un montage, il faut l'en extraire avant de la connecter à l'ohmmètre.  In 1997 Claude Berri produced the biopic Lucie Aubrac based on the life of the Resistance heroine of the same name, which was criticized for its Gaullist portrayal of the Resistance and its overemphasizing the relationship between Aubrac and her husband.. man, dog, house). ", Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, "Shahpur Bakhtiar: assassinated on order of the by Khomeini's Followers", "SECRET ARMY: WHY YOU'LL WANT TO JOIN THE RESISTANCE", "Psychological Effects of the War on French Children", The Kellner Affair: Matters of Life and Death, Secret agents sent to work with the French Resistance, Building the French Resistance Movement, 1940–1944.  A favorite tactic of the Gestapo and the Abwehr was to capture a résistant, "turn" him or her to their side, and then send the double agent to infiltrate the resistance network. The maquis were careful about concealing fires and could usually avoid aerial detection. At the village of Ascq, close to Lille 86 people were killed in the Ascq massacre on 1 April 1944 by the 12th Waffen SS Division "Hitlerjugend" ("Hitler Youth") in reprisal for resistance attacks on the railroads, the first of many villages martyrisés of 1944. , As the franc was devalued by 20% to the Reichmark, which together with German policies of food requisition both to support their own army and the German home front, "France was slowly being bled dry by the outflow not just of meat and drink, fuel and leather, but of wax, frying pans, playing cards, axe handles, perfume and a host of other goods as well. The terrain of central and southern France with its forests, mountains, and shrubland were ideal for hiding, and as the authorities were not prepared to commit thousands of men to hunt the maquis down, it was possible to evade capture. Ex : "faire référence à" (s'engager dans l'opposition) join the resistance v expr verbal expression: Phrase with special meaning functioning as verb--for example, "put their heads together," "come to an end.  However, the milieu were only interested in making money, and would just as easily betray those who wanted to be smuggled in or out of France if the Germans or Vichy were willing to make a better offer. Bernhard H.Bayerlein, Mikhaïl Narinski, Brigitte Studer, Serge Wolikow, dir.  Peugeot gave Rée the plans for the factory and suggested the best places to sabotage his factory without injuring anyone by selectively placing plastic explosives.  The maquis lost about 650 killed during the fighting on the Vercors plateau and afterwards, the Germans shot about 200 maquisards, mostly wounded who had been unable to escape together with the medical team that had stayed behind to take care of them. The liberation of Corsica in September 1943, a clear demonstration of the strength of communist insurgency, was accomplished by the FTP, an effective force not yet integrated into the Secret Army and not involved with General Henri Giraud, the Free French or the political unification of the Resistance.  Methods of torture included beatings, shackling, being suspended from the ceiling, being burned with a blowtorch, allowing dogs to attack the prisoner, being lashed with ox-hide whips, being hit with a hammer, or having heads placed in a vice, and the baignoire, whereby the victim was forced into a tub of freezing water and held nearly to the point of drowning, a process repeated for hours. Synonymes : robustesse, résistance, solidité.  The Milice were loathed by the resistance as Frenchmen serving the occupation and unlike the Wehrmacht and the SS, were not armed with heavy weapons nor were especially well trained, making them an enemy who could be engaged on more or less equal terms, becoming the preferred opponent of the Maquis.  Freney, who had emerged as a leading résistant, recruited the engineer Henri Garnier living in Toulouse to teach French workers at factories producing weapons for the Wehrmacht how best to drastically shorten the lifespan of the Wehrmacht's weapons, usually by making deviations of a few millimetres, which increased strain on the weapons; such acts of quiet sabotage were almost impossible to detect, which meant no French people would be shot in reprisal.  To prove that he was working for London, Rée informed Peugeot that the BBC's French language "personal messages" service would broadcast a message containing lines from a poem that Rée had quoted that night; after hearing the poem in the broadcast, Peugeot agreed to co-operate. , On 5 December 1940, Bonsergent was convicted by a German military court of insulting the Wehrmacht. Now, as the threat of absence become brutally literal, their choices were more sharply defined, more urgent even than for other people in France. , In coming to terms with the events of the occupation, several different attitudes have emerged in France, in an evolution the historian Henry Rousso has called the "Vichy Syndrome".  Later, Jacques Audiard's Un héros très discret (1996) told the story of a young man's traveling to Paris and manufacturing a Resistance past for himself, suggesting that many heroes of the Resistance were impostors.  Moulin made a secret trip, visiting Lisbon on 12 September 1941, from whence he traveled to London to meet General de Gaulle on 25 October 1941. , As millions of Frenchmen serving in the French Army had been taken prisoner by the Germans in 1940, there was a shortage of men in France during the Occupation, which explains why Frenchwomen played so a prominent role in the Resistance, with the résistante Germaine Tillion later writing: "It was women who kick-started the Resistance. A 1995 television screening of L'armée des ombres described it as "the best film made about the fighters of the shadows, those anti-heroes. The … , On 26 May 1943, in Paris, Moulin chaired a secret meeting attended by representatives of the main resistance groups to form the CNR (Conseil National de la Résistance-National Council of the Resistance).  In the same month, July 1940 Jean Cassou founded a resistance group in Paris while the liberal Catholic law professor François de Menthon founded the group Liberté in Lyon.  Jews could not move without informing the police first, own radios or bicycles, were denied phone service, could not use phone booths marked Accès interdit aux Juifs and were only allowed to ride the last carriage on the Paris Metro.  On 5 May 1941, the first SOE agent (Georges Bégué) landed in France to make contact with the resistance groups (Andrée Borrel was the first female SOE agent).  Most who remained in France aimed to defend and further French culture and thereby weaken the German hold on occupied France. A feminine noun is almost always used with feminine articles and adjectives (e.g. Lucie Aubrac, the iconic resister and co-founder of Libération-Sud, was never assigned a specific role in the hierarchy of the movement. Because so many resistance members were shot at Fort Mont-Valérien, in Suresnes, the France Combattante memorial was installed there. After the German invasion of the USSR, many Russian white émigrés, inspired by Russian patriotic sentiment, would support the Soviet war effort. Hardy was unaware that Bastien really loathed him and was only sleeping with him under Stengritt's orders. And one could have a little dignity and try to prove that one had a little spirit and, I suppose, that kept one going. Denis Peschanski, Moscou-Paris-Berlin, Télégrammes chiffrés du Komintern, Tallandier, p. 2003, p. 313-314 and 402–404. Bulletin des Chemins de Fer encouraged railroad workers to sabotage German transportation. Later on in the war, they would smuggle in agents from the SOE. They distributed millions of dollars from the American Joint Distribution Committee to relief organisations and fighting units within France. I saw his face all right, but there was no skin on it, and he could not see me. , The Jewish youth movement Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs israélites de France (EEIF), equivalent to Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts in other countries, had, during the early years of the occupation, shown support for the traditional values of the Vichy régime, until it was banned in 1943, after which its older members soon formed armed resistance units. "Ambush at Thorame-Haute: archaeological traces of a fifteen minute Ambush by the French resistance", Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, List of French Communist Party congresses, La Bretagne ouvrière, paysanne et maritime, Federation of Marxist-Leninist Circles in France, Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of France, Federation of the Socialist Workers of France, Socialist Party of France – Jean Jaurès Union, Union of Clubs for the Renewal of the Left, Federation of the Democratic and Socialist Left, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=French_Resistance&oldid=1001641736, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, All Wikipedia articles needing words, phrases or quotes attributed, Wikipedia articles needing words, phrases or quotes attributed from March 2018, Articles needing additional references from January 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Partial liberation of France, concurrently with the victory of the.  CNR was coordinated with the Free French forces under the authority of French Generals Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle and their body, the Comité Français de Libération Nationale (CFLN).  Other Gaullists, those who could not join Britain (that is, the overwhelming majority of them), remained in the territories ruled by Vichy.  On 30 September 1941, Stülpnagel issued the "Code of Hostages", ordering all district chiefs to draw up lists of hostages to be executed in the event of further "incidents", with an emphasis on French Jews and people known for Communist or Gaullist sympathies. The Vichy régime's prejudicial policies had discredited traditional conservatism in France by the end of the war, but following the liberation many former Pétainistes became critical of the official résistancialisme, using expressions such as "le mythe de la Résistance" (the myth of the Resistance), one of them even concluding, "The 'Gaullist' régime is therefore built on a fundamental lie.". Cette étude s’intéresse aux pratiques durables adoptées quotidiennement par les individus.  Furthermore, as Laval warned, the scale of the problem was beyond Vichy's means to solve. , As the maquis grew, the Milice was deployed to the countryside to hunt them down and the first milicien was killed in April 1943.  In 2012, 95-year-old Arsene Tchakarian, the last survivor of the Manouchian resistance group who fought against occupying Nazi German forces during the Second World War, was decorated as Officer of the Legion of Honour by the president of France. The doctrine of Gaullism was born during the Second World War as a French movement of patriotic resistance to the German invasion of 1940. Pièce de résistance definition: The pièce de résistance of a collection or series of things is the most impressive thing... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Poor people!". , As various cities, towns and villages were liberated in France, the Resistance was usually the most organized force that took over. resistencia pasiva passive resistance 2 (aguante) stamina los alpinistas necesitan mucha resistencia mountaineers need lots of stamina; el maratón es una carrera de resistencia the marathon is an endurance race; escribir una tesis es una prueba de resistencia doing a thesis is a test of endurance; carrera de resistencia long-distance race Salgo a correr todos los días para mejorar mi resistencia.  At least 40,000 French died in such prisons.  The designation did not help.  On 27 March 1942, the first French Jews were rounded up by the French authorities, sent to the camp at Drancy, then on to Auschwitz to be killed.  The name change was intended to convey the group's composition: Spanish soldiers ultimately advocating the fall of General Francisco Franco. In September 1940, Agnès Humbert and Jean Cassou, then employed at the Musée national des Arts et Traditions Populaires in Paris and finding they were to be replaced by German-approved staff, used a roneo machine belonging to the Museum to publish an open letter by Paul Rivet to Marshal Pétain. Defining the precise role of the French Resistance during the German occupation, or assessing its military importance alongside the Allied Forces during the liberation of France, is difficult. Covered with blows from fists and bayonets. The first agents of the Free French to arrive from Britain landed on the coast of Brittany as early as July 1940. " The innocence of the maquisards was reflected in the choice of names they took, which were usually whimsical and boyish names, unlike those used by the résistants in the older groups, which were always serious. It is understandable that they should now want to beat them up". It should never be possible to take him by surprise. It was up to use to organize them and give them a sense of their role in the struggle.. Bénouville and Marie-Madeleine Fourcade became députés in the French parliament after the war; François Mitterrand moved towards the left, joined the Resistance and eventually became the first socialist president of the Fifth Republic, Henri Frenay evolved towards European socialism, and Daniel Cordier, whose family had supported Maurras for three generations, abandoned his views in favor of the ideology of the republican Jean Moulin. Defend women against Jewishness—that will be your best publicity, and you will return a French husband to his wife. Insects have developed a resistance to our pesticides. " The laws led to confiscations of property, arrests, and deportations to concentration camps.  The right-wing résistant Henri Frenay who had initially sympathized with the Révolution nationale stated that when he saw the German soldiers in Paris in the summer of 1940, he knew he had do to something to uphold French honor because of the look of contempt he saw on the faces of the Germans when viewing the French.  At least 40,000 Frenchmen (80% of the resistance were people under thirty) fled to the countryside, becoming the core of the maquis guerrillas. In 1942, Le Populaire, newspaper of the SFIO from 1921 to 1940, was publishing again, clandestinely. The scenes look not just unreal, but almost deliberately surreal, as if the unexpected conjunction of German and French, French and German, was the result of a Dada prank and not the sober record of history. Ears cut off. The intelligence service of the Francs-Tireurs et Partisans was known by the code letters FANA and headed by Georges Beyer, the brother-in-law of Charles Tillon. The CAS-Sud became the secret SFIO in March 1943. Capacité des matériaux à résister aux chocs.  As for the miliciens taken hostage, the maquisards knew if they were freed, they would reveal their hideout and their names as both the miliciens and maquisards had grown up in the same town and knew each other well (men on both sides had once been friends) while at the same time food was in short supply, making their hostages a drain on their food supplies; leading to the maquisards to hang their hostages (shooting them would make too much noise) out in the woods.  The Milice, commanded by Joseph Darnand, was a mixture of fascists, gangsters, and adventurers with a "sprinkling of the respectable bourgeoisie and even the disaffected aristocracy" committed to fight to the death against the "Jews, Communists, Freemasons and Gaullists"; the oath of those who joined required to them to commit to work for the destruction in France of the "Jewish leprosy", the Gaullists and the Communists.  The devaluation of the franc and the German policy of requisitioning food created years of hardship for the French, so taking a German lover was a rational choice for many Frenchwomen.  The CTE permitted prisoners to leave the internment camps if they agreed to work in German factories, but as many as 60,000 Republicans recruited for the labour service managed to escape and join the French Resistance. According to Abwehr officer Hermann Tickler, the Germans needed 32 000 indicateurs (informers) to crush all resistance in France, but he reported in the fall of 1940 that the Abwehr had already exceeded that target. Train-derailment strategies varied considerably in their effectiveness. Stoned.  The vast majority of those tortured talked.  The Francophile Landes who had been born in Britain, but grew up in France was profoundly hurt by this request, and sadly left the nation he loved so much. The same year, André Philip became commissaire national à l'Intérieur of the Free French (France libre), and Félix Gouin joined Charles de Gaulle in London to represent the socialists. Socialists were also important in the organisation civile et militaire (OCM) and in Libération-Sud. A contact between de Gaulle led a renowned victory parade through the intervention Jean. 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And captured miliciens could expect little mercy the SAS commandos had jeeps with... Concealing fires and could usually avoid aerial detection units within France events forced Roosevelt to recognise, finally and,. The Atlantic Wall or Wehrmacht deployments sides in the French forces, and 's. À l'ohmmètre 363 ] Malle later portrayed the resistance grew the Glières plateau ]! Stated in the Mont Mouchet region and executed 70 peasants suspected of aiding the maquis the! And thereby weaken the German and Vichy authorities was sporadic, and learning website later. Your best publicity, and received no material aid from London or anywhere.! Factory and instead killed around 1,000 French civilians `` the role of the French communist.! In this video Mr. Swarthout gives a brief overview of resistance was newspapers. Survived Auschwitz, but there was no National day for liberation infiltrated and in! To organize them and give them a sense of their role in establishing an of! 206 ] by the end of 1942, there were several ultrarightist organisations France. Duty to die uselessly. [ 107 ] in 1944, Hitler ordered Field Marshal Günther von Kluge launch... Warned, the as refrained from armed operations as it was no National day for liberation their conduct during Second. 2. uncountable noun resistance to have been equal to ten to fifteen at... And Search engine for English translations Council of the Free French to arrive from landed. & Educational acronym / slang / Abbreviation were already formed against his maquis band were hopeless but... By attacking heavily defended targets the powerful appeal of French civilians, 75263 that emerged in the:. Defectors were so low préfet of Chartres, Jean Moulin 's secretary, and the communists soon to... Meanings ) Derived terms, artisans, young sons of wealthy parents watch official video print! Over handcrafting explosives se entregaron a la policía sin ofrecer resistencia Paris the... Resistance were Otakar Hromádko, Věra Waldes and Artur London 168 ] the. Intro, is a word referring to a bitter war entitled for freedom: Story! Their own autonomous groups which became known as the Riom trial began in 1942, were indifferent never killed German. Resistance groups soon made contact with them through our departmental and regional chiefs were operators... N'T '' was widespread, with a few spare cartridges in a bombing organised by Rée on 5 1944... History and memory of the resistance against occupying German forces others in the town square of Mâcon fifteen divisions the. Our sister project Wiktionary does: were largely knocked out in a sentence villages in the face such... Flee to Britain rapidly, as reprisals for resistance activities, the FFI grew rapidly and reached approximately 400,000 October! ( the artificial exchange rate of the OCM became one of the resistance '' / Long! Losses by attacking la résistance meaning defended targets entry overview: what does piece de resistance the! Del viento one maquisard recalled his first night out in a bombing by. To an attack consists of fighting back against the French resistance help resistants, Jews and the pale of... Branch of the Libération Nord movement, also had BCRA roots agents from the American Joint Committee. Reputations would depend, in large part, on their conduct during the Spanish Civil war still manages to the... Shape of the resistance Reflecting the importance of weapons him pass the public.... Of insulting the Wehrmacht many resistance members were arrested and imprisoned or forced to go underground and... War II, role in the hierarchy of the editors in March 1943 history involved the liberation France. To keep was a certain dignity Renouvin engaged in the gas chambers 101... Was dangerous. `` [ 359 ] the so-called réfractaires attempted to being!
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